For close to 100 years following the invention of the first gasoline-powered car by the German engine designer and automotive engineer, Karl Benz, in 1895, the term “security” in the context of cars meant locking the doors and walking away with the keys in your pocket or purse. How things have changed…

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, computers in the form of microprocessor units (MPUs) and microcontroller units (MCUs) started to work their way into high-end vehicles in the form of sophisticated engine control units (ECUs), also commonly called engine control modules (ECMs).